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LGBTQIA+ Wiki

Transgender, often shortened to trans, is an umbrella term that describes an individual whose gender identity differs from their assigned gender at birth (AGAB).[1] Infants are assigned a sex based on the appearance of their external genitalia,[1][2] usually only on that basis,[2] and that assignment is recorded on their birth certificate.[1] The birth assignment—generally defaulting to assigned male at birth (AMAB) or assigned female at birth (AFAB)—assumes that the individual's gender identity will correspond to their assigned sex.[2] A person's gender identity—their sense of gender—usually develops when they are very young. The realization that their gender is different from what they were assigned can occur as early as three years old or in childhood prior to the onset of puberty. It may also happen later in life.[3]

Transgender people can be binary[note 1] or non-binary[note 2]. Some transgender individuals may experience at least one form of gender dysphoria during their life, usually manifesting as an intense distress with their assigned gender. However, not all transgender people experience gender dysphoria. Conversely, some transgender individuals may experience what is known as gender euphoria, a term used to describe a "positive and exciting feeling of one's gendered self".[4] Transgender people might transition socially and/or physically from their assigned gender to their actual gender identity.[3]

Etymology

The term transgender was first mentioned in 1965 as a synonym for transsexual in Sexual Hygiene and Pathology to make a distinction between sexuality and gender identity.[5] It became an umbrella term during 1971.[6] Transgender is a combination of the prefix trans—meaning "across, beyond, through, to change"—and the noun gender, creating an adjective that highlights the journey and/or change with one's gender identity.[7] The use of "transgender" rather than previous terminology increased in the early 1990s to emphasize gender rather than sex and to reject describing all trans people based on medical and psychological criteria.[3]

The terms transmasculine[8] (also known as transmasc)[9] and transfeminine[8] (also known as transfem[10] or transfemme)[9] were in use as early as 2000.[8]

Community

History

Gender is perceived and expressed differently depending on culture, so experiences with gender similar to being transgender exist under many different names. Even though the use of the term transgender is recent, there have always been individuals expressing their gender differently from their sex.[11]

Mary Jones is one of the first recorded transfeminine people in the United States. She was a sex worker who was charged with grand larceny in 1836. When she was subjected to a strip search, it was discovered she was assigned male at birth. She arrived at court wearing feminine attire and a wig, boldly explaining before a courtroom—which vilified her for her skin color and gender presentation—that she always presented that way and would not change.[12]

We'wha was a Lhamana individual who lived from 1849 to 1896. In Zuni culture, Lhamana individuals were assigned male at birth but often presented femininely and took on the same responsibilities as women. We'wha studied crafts associated with women, such as pottery for ceremonial purposes and skills associated with men, such as weaving. Their skills as a craftsperson were renowned and they became a Cultural Ambassador for the Zuni people.[13]

Hijra individuals are recognized as a third gender in Hindu society and were recorded in the holy texts of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which date back to as early as 4th and 5th century. Hijra individuals are assigned either male or intersex at birth and dress traditionally feminine. They leave home young to join a Hijra community to learn how to perform blessings for births and weddings.[14] Before British colonization, Hijra individuals held powerful political positions in Sultanate and Mughal courts with responsibilities such as collecting taxes.[15]

Flag

Transgender Flag

Monica Helms designed the transgender pride flag in August 1999,[16] and debuted it in 2000 at a Phoenix, Arizona, USA Pride parade. It consists of five horizontal stripes: two stripes are blue with each at the top and bottom, two pink stripes directly follow the blue, and there is one white stripe in the center. The stripes are ordered this way so that the flag can be flown correctly in any direction, metaphoric for trans individuals finding correctness in themselves. The colors encompass the spectrum of trans experiences, as the blue represents masculinity, the pink represents femininity, and the white represents those who are transitioning, gender neutral, gender non-conforming, or non-binary.[17]

Distinction

Non-binary

Non-binary identities are included under the transgender umbrella as they are people whose gender differs from what they were assigned at birth. However, the two identities are distinct, and individuals do not need to identify as one term to be another. A binary transgender person differs from their birth assignment by identifying as a man or a woman rather than female or male. A non-binary individual might never identify with either binary term, or they might partially identify with either or both terms, which may or may not include their birth assignment. A trans non-binary individual is an individual who does not identify with their birth assignment (trans) and has a gender identity that is neither exclusively within the gender binary (non-binary). As stated before, one does not need to identify as one of the term to be the other one.[3]

Intersex

Intersex is an umbrella term for various people who are born with or develop sex characteristics that differ from binary notions of a "male" or "female" body. These differences are called variations, and may involve one's hormones, chromosomes, external and internal reproductive organs, or secondary sex characteristics.[18][19]

Intersex people are not inherently transgender, as they may identify with their assigned gender just as non-intersex people might. However, a person who is intersex may identify as transgender alongside intersex if they identify differently from what they have been assigned. One cannot "transition" to being intersex as intersex traits come from a variation that already exists within the individual.[19]

Controversy

Puberty blockers

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Please take note
The LGBTQIA+ Wiki documents information. It is not to be used as a source of medical advice. Always consult a healthcare professional before making any decisions regarding your medical choices.

Puberty blockers, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, are used to temporarily suppress puberty in transgender and gender diverse children. This drug is most effective in prepubescent (ages 10-11) and early adolescent children (12-13). Puberty blockers affect primary and secondary sex characteristics, which includes but is not limited to breast development and growth of facial hair. GnRH is typically given as injections at oversight of a pediatric endocrinologist.[20]

Suppressing puberty in children with gender dysphoria can ease symptoms, improve mental well-being, reduce anxiety or depression, and eliminate the need for future surgeries in certain cases. In order for a child to use pubertal blockers, they must meet a list of criteria.[20]

  • Show a long-lasting and intense pattern of gender nonconformity or gender dysphoria.[20]
  • Have gender dysphoria that began or worsened at the start of puberty.
  • Address any psychological, medical or social problems that could interfere with treatment.[20]
  • Have entered the early stage of puberty.[20]
  • Provide informed consent. If a child hasn't reached the age of medical consent, parents or other caretakers must consent and support the patient through the treatment process.[20]

The short term effects of GnRH are those typically associated with injections, including site swelling, weight gain, hot flashes, and headache. The long-term effects are still being investigated, but are known to affect growth spurts, bone growth and density, and future fertility depending on when the blockers began. The delay of sex characteristics can also impact gender affirming surgical procedures later in life. By delaying puberty beyond one's peers, a child can experience insecurities and lower self-esteem. After a period of adjustment, adolescents can work with their care team to add cross-hormone treatment to develop masculine or feminine secondary sex characteristics, helping the mind and body look and act like the gender in which the patient identifies. Many of these changes are irreversible and will require surgery to reverse.[20]

In December 2020, Bell v. Tavistock was presented in the High Court of Justice for England and Wales, where they found it "highly unlikely" that children under the age of 12 could give full informed consent to receiving puberty blockers. They were also "doubtful" that children ages 14 and 15 could give full consent or understand the ramifications of their decisions.[21] The 2020 UK judicial review highlighted ethical dilemmas surrounding the medical "affirmation" of minors.[22] The High Court judgement also allowed the NHS to suspend the initiation of hormonal interventions, including puberty blockers known to cause bone diseases, to minors under 16. However, children between the ages of 16 and 18 were allowed to take part in hormonal interventions in clinical trial settings approved by an institutional review board.[22][21]

Several European countries found the evidence base to be insufficient in justifying routine early medical interventions for gender-dysphoric minors. They revised its treatment guidelines in 2020, prioritizing psychological interventions over medical interventions, particularly for minors.[22]

On November 28, 2022, Australian courts settled a family court trial in which the parents could not agree on whether their child should or should not undergo a medical transition. Several experts were called in to testify and gave affidavits on the case. These experts focused on developments in Sweden, Finland, and England, where systematic reviews of puberty blockers revealed a weak base for treatments in minors. The court case cited both Sweden and Finland's decision to move away from pediatric medical transitioning to focus more on psychotherapeutic approaches. A gender clinic gave a recommendation for puberty blockers, only to later reverse this recommendation. The court case is noted for being the first of its kind in which a courtroom has heard a balanced argument both for and against medical transitions in minors. Previous court cases did not have a balanced arguments from experts against puberty blockers, hormones, and bilateral mastectomies in minors still developing an identity. However, because the individual involved is a minor, the courts sealed all documents, prohibiting all evidence from being fully viewed or read. The ramifications of the case may have lasting effects on others of its kind.[23]

Lupron

Studies were developed in Finland and Sweden to look into the long-term effects of Lupron, a hormonal therapy known broadly as "puberty blockers". Lupron was discovered in the 1980s and was used, among others in its class of GnRH agonists, by pediatric endocrinologists.[24] Lupron specifically was given to cancer patients as an injectable chemotherapy drug, but became used in an off-label setting for hormonal therapy in prepubescent children who entered puberty too soon.[25] It was used to stop toddler, preschool, and kindergarten-age girls from entering precocious (early) puberty by shutting down estrogen flow in the brain to halt the body's progression toward puberty. Once the injections cease, the process of puberty resumes. The drug and its class of drugs have dozens of off-label uses.[24]

In 2017, more than 10,000 young women in the US who took Lupron as children either to stop puberty or to grow taller, whether related to gender identity or not, reported adverse events later in life. They were diagnosed with brittle bones, bone disorders, chronic pain, degenerative disks' and spines, and other conditions that typically begin in late adulthood. The FDA began a specific review of nervous system and psychiatric events in association with the class of drugs in which Lupron falls into, GnRH agonists. The review focused entirely on pediatric patients. While there are several similar drugs to Lupron, it is a leader in the market, despite thousands of women's claims of its harmful long-term side effects. The spokesman for the company claimed that anything beyond the drug's label, including delaying sex characteristics, are considered unapproved uses. The long term side effects of drugs in Lupron's classification were put under scrutiny, due to the confirmation that the drug does cause bone disorders and disease-caused fractures. The impact of the class of drugs on children's bones is an unanswered question.[24]

Further research was conducted by Sweden and Finland not only to research the effects of Lupron in transgender people, but also the effects of the drug as a whole. They found that the effects of the drug outweighed the potential benefits and banned the dispersal, an act that is also prevalent in many European countries.[25][24]

Sweden's Health and Technology Assessment (SBU) conducted an evidence review in 2019 of puberty blockers such as Lupron and others in its classification. They found a lack of evidence for medical treatments, and a lack of explanation for the sharp increase in the numbers of adolescents presenting with gender dysphoria in recent years. They found the risk/benefits analysis of hormonal intervention such as Lupron to be uncertain.[22][25]

Sweden effectively banned the use of Lupron on children under the age of 18, and those who wanted to use the drug after turning 18 were only allowed to do so in a research setting. The policy states that careful assessment of the patient's maturity level must be conducted to determine if the patient is capable of providing meaningful informed consent. There is also an added clause that both patients and guardians must be informed of the potential risks and permeances of the drug.[22]

In North America, the debate around the drug Lupron and its class of drugs is highly politicized. Several US states used laws to ban the use of hormonal interventions in dysphoric minors, while other states introduced a wide range of gender-"affirming" medical and surgical interventions for "gender incongruence", regardless of the patient's age or mental health status. The Canadian bill "Bill C-6" seeks to criminalize psychological treatments of gender dysphoric minors. While this effort criminalizes conversion therapies, it also removes the non-invasive medical options such as intensive therapy.[22]

Only one type of Lupron is no longer distributed in America due to a national shortage caused by a routine manufacturing compliance review. Six other types are still on the market, despite the known risks of bone diseases and other long-term effects.[26]

Transwomen and periods

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Please take note
Beginning in the late 2010s and early 2020s, social media users discussed transgender women who were assigned male at birth experiencing menstrual cycles similar to cisgender women. The LGBTQIA+ Wiki documents reliable medical information as it pertains to certain topics. Always consult your physician about changes, symptoms, or questions you may have.

The medical certainty of transgender woman assigned male at birth having menstrual periods is unproven, as researches have not conducted studies based on transgender health. There are anecdotal claims of support for the theory made by select members of the transgender community. Transgender women who were assigned male at birth and have undergone hormonal replacement therapy cannot have a menstrual period or cycle because they do not have a uterus or uterine lining to shed. People who do not have a uterus or a uterine lining can not experience menstrual periods. Some transwomen who are on hormonal therapies may experience hormonal fluctuations similar to that of a cisgender woman. Transwomen might experience PMS (premenstrual syndrome) or PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) type symptoms as a side effect of medications like estrogen or progesterone. As with any medication, some individuals may be more sensitive in experiencing the side effects. Both oral Progesterone medications an Estrogen injections can cause several side effects that mirror those of menstruating individuals.[27]

Perceptions and discrimination

Many transgender people medically transition through hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and/or surgeries to bring their bodies into alignment with their gender identity. However, not all people wish to, choose to, or have access to resources to be able to medically transition.[3] Medical transitioning is often emphasized by cisgender people, and is a core belief of transmedicalism,[28] but a trans person's identity is self-determined and not dependent upon procedures or appearance.[1] In a 2018 survey, 52% of transgender people sought HRT or other medical care to help transition to their correct gender.[29]

For some, the desire to transition stems from gender dysphoria, referring to the experience of intense distress with the lack of alignment between assigned gender at birth and gender identity. Dysphoria is not experienced by every trans person, and it is not necessary to be trans. However, because medical transitioning involves medical professionals, it often requires a diagnosis of gender dysphoria.[3] Dysphoria often begins in childhood, but some people first experience it after puberty.[30]

In the 21st century, being transgender has been incorrectly viewed as a trend or a fad that will pass. However, transgender people have always existed. This belief sometimes has been attributed to Western colonialism.[31] Western colonialism began around the 15th century at a time when European countries sought to increase their power through conquering and exploiting other nations and indigenous peoples. One of the many tactics of colonialism is enforcing a place's culture and language onto another place. Western colonialism was so widespread that by 1914, most nations in the world had been colonized by European forces at some point.[32] Western colonialism impacted other cultures' abilities to define genders in culturally specific ways through enforced assimilation versus annihilation, which caused the erasure of transgender people in history. Transgender people have had many different names and histories in various cultures around the world, some of which have involved sacred and/or important positions in their societies.[33] (See History for more)

Gender essentialist beliefs and the gender binary impact the way transgender individuals are stigmatized as defiant or deviant. The stigma denies equal opportunity to prosperity as it impacts every aspect of life, such as economic and housing aspects, familial or social support systems, and mental health.[34]

Media

Movies

Films and documentaries that feature transgender staff, directors, characters, actors, themes, or undertones;

  • Women in Revolt (1971) — Paul Morrisey, Andy Warhol, Candy Darling, John Cale
  • The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976) — Nicolas Roeg, Michael Deely, David Bowie, Candy Clark, Rip Torn
  • Paris Is Burning (1990) — Jennie Livingston
  • Ma Vie en Rose (1997) — Alaine Berliner, Carole Scotta, Chris Vander Stappen)
  • Boys Don't Cry (1999)— Kimberly Pierce, John Hart, Caroline Kaplan
  • The Matrix series (1999, 2003, 2021) — Lana Wachowski, Lilly Wachowski
  • Solider's Girl (2003) — Based on Calpernia Addams' relationship with Barry Winchell
  • Transamerica (2005)
  • Screaming Queens: The Riot at Compton’s Cafeteria (2005) — Documentary, Victor Silverman, Susan Stryke
  • Beautiful Darling (2010) — Documentary following Candy Darling | James Rasin, Elisabeth Bentley, Gill Holland, Louis Durra
  • The Danish Girl (2015) — Biography loosely based on Lili Elbe | Tom Hopper, Gail Mutrux
  • Deidra & Laney Rob a Train (2017) — Susan Carstonis, Nick Moceri, Ian Bricke
  • The True Adventures of Wolfboy (2019) — Martin Krejcí, Declan Baldwin, Lauren Beck, Olivia Dufalt
  • Disclosure (2020) — Documentary, Sam Feder | ft. Laverne Cox, Bianca Leigh, Jen Richards
  • The Velvet Underground (2021) — Documentary following The Velvet Underground, Lou Reed, and Andy Warhol’s Social Circle

Literature

  • Melissa by Alex Gino[note 3]
  • Light from Uncommon Stars by Ryka Aoki
  • The Passing Playbook by Isaac Fitzsimons
  • Rick by Alex Gino
  • Magical Boy by The Kao
  • I Am J by Cris Beam
  • Felix Ever After by Kacen Callender
  • Skate for Your Life by Leo Baker
  • Cemetery Boys by Thomas Aiden
  • Heartstopper by Alice Oseman
  • I Was Born for This by Alice Oseman
  • Tomorrow Will Be Different: Love, Loss, and the Fight for Trans Equality by Sarah McBride
  • The Passing Playbook by Isaac Fitzsimmons
  • Rethinking Normal by Katie Rain Hill
  • Becoming a Visible Man by Jamison Green
  • Meet Cute Diary by Emery Lee
  • The [Un]popular Vote by Jasper Sanchez
  • Sorted: Growing Up, Coming Out, and Finding My Place by Jackson Bird
  • Real Queer America: LGBT Stories from Red States by Samantha Allen
  • Being Jazz: My Life as a (Transgender) Teen by Jazz Jennings
  • Growing Up Trans: In Our Own Words by Lindsay Herriot
  • Continuum by Chella Man
  • Obie is Man Enough by Schuyler Bailar
  • Zenobia July by Lisa Bunker
  • The Other Boy by M.G. Hennessy
  • I Am Jazz by Jazz Jennings

Comics

Television

Video games

Public figures

  • April Ashley, a trans woman who is an English model and LGBT rights activist who underwent gender confirmation surgery in 1960, at which point such procedures were still very rare[51]
  • Calpernia Sarah Addams, a trans woman who is an actress, musician, author, and activist.[52] She also served in the U.S. military[52][53][54], specifically in the Navy.[53] At one point, her Army boyfriend Barry Winchell was killed due to other people assuming they were both gay men, instead of acknowledging Addams as, in her words, "a transgendered woman".[54]
  • Andrea Jean James, an American trans woman who is a filmmaker and consumer activist.[55] Both she and Calpernia Addams also founded Deep Stealth Productions, described as "the first Hollywood production company owned and operated by out trans women, which creates trans-positive media, education and consultation".[52]
  • Elliot Page, a Canadian actor and environmentalist activist.[56] He also identifies as non-binary and queer.[57]
  • Janet Mock, an American trans woman who is a journalist, author, and trans right activist[51]
  • Juno Dawson, an English trans woman who is an author[51]
  • Kris Tyson (on-screen MrBeast member)[58]
  • Laverne Cox, a black American trans woman who is an actress, was the first openly trans person to appear on the cover of TIME magazine[51][59]
  • Rachel Levine[60]
  • Wendy Carlos, an American trans woman who is an electronic music artist and has composed the musical scores for A Clockwork Orange, The Shining, and Tron[51]

Notes

  1. "Binary gender" refers to "man" or "woman".
  2. Non-binary is an umbrella term for genders that are not exclusively man or woman.
  3. This book was originally published with the title George, however the author and publisher agreed in 2021 to change the name, and that they "made a mistake in titling it with a name 'the main character does not like or want to use for herself'."[35]

Resources

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Glossary of Terms - Transgender" by GLAAD on GLAAD Media Reference Guide - 11th Edition(Archived on 2024-04-09)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Birth Assignment" by The Trans Language Primer on The Trans Language Primer(Archived on 2021-11-01)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Nonbinary Gender Identities: History, Culture, Resources by McNabb, Charlie. Published 2018 by Rowman & Littlefield.
  4. "Dysphoria = Trans Hub" on <transhub.org.au>. Published 2021 by Trans Hub. (no backup information provided)
  5. Sexual Hygiene and Pathology: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions by Oliven, John F.. Published 1965 by J. B. Lippincott Company. (web archive)
  6. "Brief History of Transgender Issues" by The Guardian, Professor Stephen Whittle on <theguardian.com>(no backup information provided)
  7. "transgender | Etymology, origin and meaning of transgender by etymonline" on <etymonline.com>. Published 2022 by Online Etymology Dictionary. (no backup information provided)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Issues of Countertransference in Therapy with Transgender Clients" by Christine Milrod on Southern California Transgender Counseling. Published 2000. (no backup information provided)
  9. 9.0 9.1 The Queens' English: The LGBTQIA+ Dictionary of Lingo and Colloquial Phrases by Chloe O. Davis. Published 2021 by Clarkson Potter/Publishers. ISBN 9780593135006, ISBN 9780593135013 (Ebook)
  10. "What Does It Mean to Be Transfeminine? 12 Things to Consider" by Sian Ferguson on Healthline. Published 2021-01-14. Medically reviewed by Janet Brito, Ph.D., LCSW, CST (Archived on 2023-12-01)
  11. "What is Trans History?" by Agarwal, Kritika on <historians.org>. Published 2018-05-01. (no backup information provided)
  12. "Mary Jones, 1836" on <transascity.org>. Published 2014-11-08 by Transas City. (no backup information provided)
  13. "We'wha" by Brandman, Mariana on National Women's History Museum(no backup information provided)
  14. "The third gender and Hijras" by Rhude, Kristofer on Harvard Divinity School(no backup information provided)
  15. "Hijras and the legacy of British colonial rule in India" by Hunter, Sophie on Engenderings. Published 2019-06-17 by London School of Economics: Department of Gender Studies(no backup information provided)
  16. "History of the Pride Flag" by T-Girl Publishing on <web.archive.org>. Published 2015. (no backup information provided)
  17. "Here's the Meaning Behind the Colors of the Trans Flag" by Twersky, Carolyn on <seventeen.com>. Published June 3, 2021. (no backup information provided)
  18. "What's intersex?" by Planned Parenthood on https://www.plannedparenthood.org(Archived on 2022-01-20)
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Understanding Intersex and Transgender Communities" by InterAct Advocates on <interactadvocates.org>(Archived on 2021-12-28)
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 "Pubertal blockers for transgender and gender-diverse youth" by Mayo Clinic Staff on <mayoclinic.org>. Published June 18, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Swedish Hospital Praised for Halting Gender Transition for Children Under 16" on <angelusnews.com>(no backup information provided)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 "Sweden’s Karolinska Ends All Use of Puberty Blockers and Cross-Sex Hormones for Minors Outside of Clinical Studies" by Karolinska Policy Change and Guidelines on <segm.org>. Published May 5, 2021, updated February, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  23. "Australian gender clinic reverses course on puberty blockers for minors" by Mia Ashton on <thepostmillennial.com>. Published November 27, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 "Women Fear Drug They Used To Halt Puberty Led To Health Problems" on <khn.org>. Published February 2, 2017. (no backup information provided)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 "Puberty suppression in transgender children and adolescents" by Aimone Mahfouda, Julia K. Moore, Aris Siafarikas, Florian D Zepf, Ashleigh Lin on <thelancet.com>. Published May 22, 2017. (no backup information provided)
  26. "ASHP Lupron Drug Shortage" on <ashp.org>(no backup information provided)
  27. "Can transgender women have a period?" by Medically reviewed by E. Mimi Arquilla, DO - article by Veronica Zambon on <medicalnewstoday.com>. Published November 28, 2023. (no backup information provided)
  28. Who Counts as Trans? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Trans Tumblr Posts [vol. 46, no. 1] by Jacobsen, Kai; Devor, Aaron; & Hodge, Edwin. (web archive)
  29. "Can Non-Binary People Expierence Gender Dysphoria?" by Zawn Villenes, Good Therapy on <goodtherapy.org>(no backup information provided)
  30. "What Is Gender Dysphoria?" by Psychiatry.org on <psychiatry.org>(no backup information provided)
  31. "Transgender People Have Always Existed" by Martens, Avery on <acluohio.org>. Published 2016-06-10. (no backup information provided)
  32. "Colonialism Facts and Information" by Blakemore, Erin on National Geographic. Published 2019-02-19. (no backup information provided)
  33. "Colonialism Still Affects How Black and Indigenous People See Gender" by Omowale, Jendayi on <them.us>. Published 2021-08-18. (no backup information provided)
  34. "Dismantling a Culture of Violence" by Human Rights Campaign Foundation on Human Rights Campaign Foundation(no backup information provided)
  35. "Alex Gino's children's novel George retitled Melissa 'to respect trans heroine'" by Flood, Alison on <theguardian.com>. Published 2021-11-03 by The Guardian. (no backup information provided)
  36. "Yasmin Finney, Who Plays Elle in “Heartstopper,” Talks Black Trans Icons, Vibes, and More" by K-Ci Williams on <teenvogue.com>. Published May 2, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  37. "First trans Amazon introduced in ‘Wonder Woman’ series by DC Comics" by Trudy Ring on <qvoicenews.com>. Published October 24, 2021. (no backup information provided)
  38. "The Triumphant Return of a Forgotten Doom Patrol LGBTQ Superhero Pioneer" by Brian Cronin on <cbr.com>. Published June 20, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  39. "Meet the First Trans Character in a DC Comics Film" by Samantha Riedel on <them.us>. Published January 27, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 "Every Trans Character In Marvel (& How Likely They Are To Join The MCU)" by Melody Macready on <screenrant.com>. Published May 1, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  41. "Marvel Introduces Trans Mutant Hero, Escapade" by M.N. Negus on <cbr.com>. Published May 16, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  42. "Escapade, Morgan Red, and Hibbert return in NEW MUTANTS #31" by Rebecca Oliver Kaplan on <comicsbeat.com>. Published July 8, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 ""Pose" Is Making Television History With These 5 Transgender Actors" by Allie Fasanella on <teenvogue.com>. Published June 10, 2018. (no backup information provided)
  44. "A Tale of Two Trans Characters: Glee’s Trans Representation Problem" by Mey on <autostraddle.com>. Published January 17, 2015. (no backup information provided)
  45. "How ‘Supergirl’ Actor Nicole Maines Is Fighting for Trans Visibility On- and Off-Screen" by Audrey Cleo Yap on <variety.com>. Published March 17, 2020. (no backup information provided)
  46. "Theo Putnam: Battling demons and gender norms" by Sara Casaus on <youngentertainmentmag.com>. Published December 27, 2020. (no backup information provided)
  47. "GLAAD x Tom Swift: A Conversation with Tian Richards and Marquise Vilson" by Kayla Thompson on <glaad.org>. Published July 26, 2022. (no backup information provided)
  48. "Boys Run the Riot" by Keito Gaku on <kodansha.us>(no backup information provided)
  49. "How Josie Totah Brought Big Mouth’s First Trans Character to Life" by Samantha Allen on <them.us>. Published December 8, 2020. (no backup information provided)
  50. "‘Celeste’ protagonist confirmed as transgender by the game’s creator" on <nme.com>. Published 2020-11-07 by NME. (Archived on 2022-11-26)
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 The Queeriodic Table: A Celebration of LGBTQ+ Culture by Dyer, Harriet. Published 2019 by Summersdale Publishers Ltd. ISBN 9781786857521.
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 "About Calpernia" on Calpernia Addams(Archived on 2024-02-26)
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Trans American Military Stories" by Anderson-Minshall, Diane on Advocate. Published 2011-09-21. (Archived on 2018-10-06)
  54. 54.0 54.1 "An Inconvenient Woman" by France, David on The New York Times. Published 2000-05-28. (Archived on 2023-04-06)
  55. "Andrea James and transgender people" on Transgender Map(Archived on 2024-05-28)
  56. "Canadian actor Elliot Page shares he is transgender" on <cbc.ca>. Published 2020-12-01 by CBC. (Archived on 2024-02-05)
  57. "Elliot Page Is Ready for This Moment" on <time.com>. Published 2021-03-16 by CBC. (Archived on 2024-01-26)
  58. https://www.indiatimes.com/trending/social-relevance/youtuber-kris-tyson-who-came-out-as-transgender-shares-transformation-pictures-610854.html
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  60. "Meet Rachel Levine, one of the very few transgender public officials in America" by Zezima, Kate on <washingtonpost.com>. Published 2016-06-01 by The Washington Post. (Archived on 2020-03-29)
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