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Pronouns are words that can substitute for a noun. Personal pronouns are used to refer to a person when not using their name,[1] and they are the type of pronouns meant when discussing a person's pronouns. Although the topic of personal pronouns has been associated with the LGBTQIA+ community, particularly with people who are transgender or non-binary,[2][3][4] everyone has pronouns. They are not something only certain types of people have.[5]

Which pronouns a person uses should not be assumed or guessed.[4][5][6] In English, some pronouns have strong social associations with a specific gender identity, typically she/her with women and he/him with men.[6] Although certain pronouns are used more often by certain genders, pronouns do not necessarily indicate an individual's gender identity.[2][5][7] For instance, someone who uses the pronouns she/her may be a genderfluid[6] or agender person instead of a binary female person.[2] When someone's pronouns are not known, using the gender neutral singular they/them is recommended.[3][6][8] The singular they/them is grammatically correct;[9] more importantly, it is respectful.[3][6][8]

Using pronouns[]

Pronouns take the place of a noun or refer to a noun. The functions of personal pronouns are:[10]

  • Nominative (aka Subjective): The person as the subject of a verb; the person doing the action[10]
  • Objective: The person as the object of a verb; the person acted upon or following a preposition (like "in" or "near")[10]
  • Possessive:
    • Possessive adjective (aka possessive determiner): Modifies a noun to show who possesses it[11]
    • Possessive pronoun: Replaces a noun to show ownership[10]
  • Reflexive: Referring back to the person who is the subject of a verb to show the same person is also the object of the action; -self or -selves added[10]

The noun replaced by the pronoun is known as the antecedent. English uses common, non-gendered pronoun sets for the first and second grammatical persons (the speaker and addressee, respectively) and for third-person plural (others), while third-person singular pronouns often vary based on the gender (or lack thereof) and animacy of the antecedent.

Commonly known and used pronouns include:[12]

Person Number Nominative (subjective) pronoun Objective pronoun Possessive adjective (determiner) Possessive pronoun Reflexive pronoun
First Singular I me my mine myself
Plural we us our ours ourselves
Second Singular you you your yours yourself
Singular (archaic, informal) thou thee thy (thine if before vowel) thine thyself
Plural you you your yours yourselves
Third Singular she her her hers herself
he him his his himself
they them their theirs themself
it it its its itself
one one one's one's oneself
Plural they them their theirs themselves

She/her is generally associated with feminine identity, but not limited to it; he/him is likewise generally, but not necessarily, masculine. Singular they/them is often used as a gender neutral kind of pronoun. It/its is used by some people, but it should never be used if it is not explicitly that person's pronoun; "it/its" has a history of transphobic use,[13] and in English is almost exclusively used to indicate non-human objects.[14] One/one's is used as a personal pronoun less often than its use in formal English to refer to a generic or hypothetical person rather than a specific one. People may use multiple pronouns; for example, a person may be comfortable with both "he/him" and "she/her", or "he/him" and "it/its".[12] Some who go by multiple pronouns don't mind if you stick to just one set of them, but some may prefer that you switch them around sometimes.[15] It is better to ask them what they prefer. Some individuals prefer to be called only by their name and do not identify as using any sort of pronouns.[16]

Some increasingly common practices at workplaces, schools, and universities are stating one's own pronouns during an introduction, listing personal pronouns in e-mail signatures, or wearing university or work badges that indicate the wearer's pronouns. It is often recommended to be very straightforward and casual about one's pronouns, as it is a simple bit of information that is needed to know how to refer to someone. If another person's pronouns are unknown, it is considered polite to privately ask the person about their pronouns in order to refer to them correctly. When someone mistakenly uses the wrong pronoun, it is considered polite to briefly apologize and then continue speaking or writing with the correct pronouns.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Misgendering[]

Misgendering is using an incorrect pronoun or gendered label when referring to someone.[24] It usually happens due to assuming one's gender identity and pronouns, instead of checking, asking, or using gender-neutral terms. Intentional misgendering is especially harmful to transgender people and is a form of psychological mistreatment and demonstrates a lack of respect.[25][26] In 2021, the human rights tribunal in British Columbia, Canada, ruled that deliberate misgendering is a human rights violation.[27] It is a proven fact that respecting one's name and pronouns is beneficial for mental health. In a study on misgendering, 32.8 percent of participants reported feeling very stigmatized when misgendered; frequent misgendering made people feel that their identity was very important, but made them experience lower self-esteem around their appearance.[28] In another study, compared to those without chosen name usage, which is related to respecting one's identity and pronouns, trans people with chosen name usage experienced a 71% drop in severe depression, a 34% drop suicidal ideation, and 65% drop in suicide attempts.[29]

Neopronouns[]

Neopronouns are personal pronouns coined as an alternative to existing third-person singular pronouns.[30] The prefix "neo-" means new or modern, and the term "neopronouns" has been in use for several years, though the exact origin of the term is unknown. Pronouns in English are one of several closed word classes, meaning that their meanings do not change nor are new words added frequently.[31] As such, neopronouns are generally not officially recognized within their language; however, some dictionaries are beginning to include new gender-neutral pronouns.[32]

Neopronouns are not inherently associated with any gender identity. Though they are less widely used, neopronouns can be used in speech and text, as with common personal pronouns.[12] In a 2020 study conducted by The Trevor Project, 4% of approximately 40,000 LGBTQIA+ youth used neopronouns, with 1% using "ze/zir/zirs".[33]

People who use neopronouns may also have "auxiliary pronouns". These pronouns are usually he/him, she/her, or they/them, and serve as alternatives for situations where one's neopronouns cannot be used (such as by some people with learning disabilities, or when a language barrier is present). This term has been used in the community since 2014.[34]

History[]

In his 1920 novel A Voyage to Arcturus, David Lindsay coined the pronoun "a" for use by his fictitious alien race, who were "born from air and of a third sex."[35]

In 1970, Mary Orovan published a pamphlet titled humanizing english, which originally proposed the use of "co" as a third-person neutral pronoun, while later publications proposed "e".[36] The "co" pronoun is currently used as a neutral pronoun in legal policies of the Twin Oaks community, located in Virginia.[37]

The pronouns "ve/vir/vis" were created early in the 1970s, with their first recorded use being in the May 1970 edition of Everywoman.[38] They were later featured in The Bone People (1984) by Keri Hulme, and Greg Egan's books Distress (1995) and Diasopora (1998).[39][40]

In 2018, the pronoun "ze" was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2018,[41] followed by "hir" and "zir" in 2019.[42]

In 2021, the social media platform Instagram introduced an optional "pronouns" field to user profiles.[43] This section came with a list of pronoun options, of which a user could select any four, but not fill in pronouns themself — presumably to prevent abuse of the feature.
The list of pronouns you could select from included several neopronoun sets, with "co/cos", "e/em/eir", "fae/faer", "per/pers", and "mer/mers" featured, among others;[44] Instagram has given no indication of why these pronouns were selected in particular. The explicit inclusion of neopronouns in this feature reflects a growing consciousness of neopronouns among both the general public and corporations.

Examples[]

Common neopronouns include:[12]

Nominative (subjective) Objective Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive
ae aer aer aers aerself
ey em eir eirs emself
fae faer faer faers faerself
xe xem xyr xyrs xemself
ze hir hir hirs hirself
ze zir zir zirs zirself

Less common neopronouns include:[12]

Nominative (subjective) Objective Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive
co co cos cos coself
e em eir eirs eirself
e em es ems emself
hu hum hus hus huself
ne nem nir nirs nemself
ne nir nir nirs nirself
per per per pers perself
s/he hir hir hirs hirself
thon thon thons thons thonself
ve ver vis vers verself
vi vir vis virs virself
vi vim vis vims vimself
zhe zher zher zhers zherself

Gender-neutral pronouns in gendered languages[]

Some languages do not have gendered pronouns, but many languages lack a gender-neutral pronoun that can be used to refer to a person whose gender is unknown or someone non-binary, equivalent to the English singular "they". There are attempts to create new gender-neutral pronouns for gendered languages. A successful example is Swedish; in 2014, the gender-neutral pronoun "hen" was added to the Swedish Academy Dictionary and has become widely understood since. "Hen" was created by changing the vowel in the existing "han" ("he") and "hon" ("she").[45]

French is an official language in France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Some non-binary French speakers use the pronoun "on" (which can mean "they", "he", "she", or "one" depending on the context) as a personal pronoun. Others have taken "il" ("he") and changed the first vowel to create "ol" and "ul" as gender-neutral pronouns; however, these have not been widely recognized.[45] In 2021, the major French dictionary Le Robert added the neopronoun "iel/iels" as a third-person neutral pronoun;[46] French previously did not have any official neutral pronouns. It is alleged that the term was created in 2013 as a portmanteau of "il" and "elle", the masculine and feminine French pronouns.[47]

Resources[]

References[]

  1. "Pronoun Definition & Meaning" on <merriam-webster.com>. Published by Merriam-Webster. (no backup information provided)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The A-Z of Gender and Sexuality: From Ace to Ze by Morgan Lev Edward Holleb. Published 2019 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9781785923425 (paperback), ISBN 9781784506636 (eBook)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Pronouns" on LGBT Foundation(Archived on 2022-02-10)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "A Guide to Being an Ally to Transgender and Nonbinary Youth" by The Trevor Project on <thetrevorproject.org>. Published 2021-07-14. (Archived on 2022-02-05)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Pronouns" by The Trans Language Primer on The Trans Language Primer(Archived on 2022-02-10)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 The ABC's of LGBT+ by Ash Hardell. Published 2016 by Mango Media. ISBN 9781633534087.
  7. "Pronouns & Gender Identity—Ask, Don't Assume!" on <gaycenter.org>. Published by Lesbian & Gay Community Services Center, Inc.. (Archived on 2022-02-09)
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Misgendering" by The Trans Language Primer on The Trans Language Primer(Archived on 2021-11-02)
  9. "They Definition & Meaning" on <merriam-webster.com>. Published by Merriam-Webster. (no backup information provided)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 "What Are Pronouns in English Grammar?" by Shrives, Craig on Grammar Monster(Archived on 2022-02-11)
  11. "What Are Possessive Adjectives? (with Examples)" by Shrives, Craig on Grammar Monster(Archived on 2022-02-11)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 "List of popular pronouns" by The "Neutral Language Council" collective on Pronouns.page(Archived on 2022-02-13)
  13. "Gender Pronouns" on <uwm.edu>. Published by University of Milwaukee. (no backup information provided)
  14. "It Definition & Meaning" on <merriam-webster.com>. Published by Merriam-Webster. (no backup information provided)
  15. "How To Affirm the People in Your Life Who Use Multiple Sets of Pronouns" on Them.us(Archived on 2022-02-21)
  16. "Gender Census 2021 Worldwide Results" on <gendercensus.com>. "None/avoid pronouns – 12.6% [approximately 5,617 out of 44,583 responses]" (no backup information provided)
  17. "Pronoun guide" on <essex.ac.uk>. Published 2020 by University of Essex. (no backup information provided)
  18. "Good Practices: Names and Pronouns" on <lgbtq.umd.edu>. Published by University of Maryland. (no backup information provided)
  19. "Using Pronouns" on <studentlife.uoregon.edu>(no backup information provided)
  20. "Genderr Specific and Gender Neutral Pronouns" on <lightupthesky.ca>. Published by Light Up The Sky. (no backup information provided)
  21. "Talking About Pronouns in the Workplace" on <hrc-prod-requests.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com>. Published by Human Rights Campaign Foundation. (no backup information provided)
  22. "How to Talk About Pronouns at Work: A Visual Guide" by Cohen, Paige, & Zheng, Lily on <hbr.org>. Published September 28, 2021 by Harvard Business Review. (no backup information provided)
  23. "Why all cis allies should have pronouns in their bio" by Andrea on <avris.it>. Published July 18, 2020 by Avris. (no backup information provided)
  24. "Misgneder Definition & Meaning" on <merriam-webster.com>. Published by Merriam-Webster. (no backup information provided)
  25. "Misgendering: What it is and why it matters" by Katz-Wise, Sabra on <health.harvard.edu>. Published July 23, 2021 by Harvard Health Publishing. (no backup information provided)
  26. "What Is Misgendering? Here's Why It's Harmful and How to Apologize If You Do It" by Clements, K. C. on <healthline.com>. Published October 19, 2017 by Healthline. (no backup information provided)
  27. "Deliberate misgendering violates human rights, Canada tribunal rules" by Wakefield, Lily on <pinknews.co.uk>. Published October 3, 2021 by Pink News. (no backup information provided)
  28. Experiences with Misgendering: Identity Misclassification of Transgender Spectrum Individuals by McLemore, Kevin. Published August 21, 2015 by Self and Identity. (web archive)
  29. Chosen Name Use Is Linked to Reduced Depressive Symptoms, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal Behavior Among Transgender Youth. Published March 30, 2018 by Journal of Adolescent Health. (web archive)
  30. "Understanding Neopronouns" by McGaughey, Sebastian in The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide [vol. 27, no. 2]. Published March–April 2020.
  31. "For linguists, it was the decade of the pronoun" by Blaylock, Reed on <dornsife.usc.edu>. Published 2020-01-08 by USC Dornsife. (no backup information provided)
  32. "Gender neutral pronouns" on <dictionary.com>. Published 2018-03-01 by Dictionary.com. (no backup information provided)
  33. "Pronoun Usage Among LGBTQ Youth" on <thetrevorproject.org>. Published July 29, 2020 by The Trevor Project. (no backup information provided)
  34. "Ask a Non-Binary" by Anonymous on <askanonbinary.tumblr.com>. Published May 30, 2014 by Tumblr. (no backup information provided)
  35. "Pronoun Diversity" by Stitt, ALex on <psychologytoday.com>. Published August 10, 2020 by Psychology Today. (no backup information provided)
  36. humanizing english by Orovan, Mary. Published 1970. (web archive)
  37. "Twin Oaks International Community Membership Agreement" on <twinoaks.org>. Published by Twin Oaks Community. (no backup information provided)
  38. "Everywoman" on <archive.org>. Published 1970-05-29. "[...] I see no reason why everyone, child and adult, female and male, can't use Pn. before vis first name when ve doesn't want to be addressed by it." (no backup information provided)
  39. "List of popular pronouns" by The "Neutral Language Council" collective on <en.pronouns.page>. Published 2021. (no backup information provided)
  40. "urticator.net - ve, vis, ver" on <urticator.net>. Published 2000 by Urticator.net. (no backup information provided)
  41. "New Words in the OED: June 2018" on <public.oed.com>. Published by Oxford English Dictionary. (no backup information provided)
  42. "New Words in the OED: March 2019" on <public.oed.com>. Published by Oxford English Dictionary. (no backup information provided)
  43. "Add pronouns to your profile ✨ The new field is available in a few countries, with plans for more." by Instagram on <twitter.com>. Published May 12, 2021 by Twitter. (no backup information provided)
  44. "Instagram profile pronouns: here is how to display your gender identity" by Grothaus, Michael on <msn.com>. Published May 5, 2021 by MSN. (no backup information provided)
  45. 45.0 45.1 "Languages Adapt to the Nonbinary" by Barrett, Kim in The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide [vol. 27, no. 5]. Published September–October 2020.
  46. "non-binaritéLe pronom neutre "iel" entre au dictionnaire grâce au "Petit Robert"" (in French) by Volfson, Olga on <tetu.com>. Published November 15, 2021 by Têtu. (no backup information provided)
  47. "Major French dictionary adds non-binary pronouns for the first time" by Bollinger, Alex on <lgbtqnation.com>. Published November 15, 2015 by LGFBTQ Nation. (no backup information provided)
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